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In the following essay, Green outlines similarities between the characters of Antonio and Shylock in The Merchant of Venice.
Green, Andrew. "Antonio and Shylock." English Review 13.3 (Feb. 2003): 38-41. Rpt. in Shakespearean Criticism. Ed. Michelle Lee. Vol. 107. Detroit: Gale, 2007. Literature Resource Center. Web. 28 June 2011.
Maccoby describes The Merchant of Venice as a drama that embraces "antisemitism on a profound theological level," concentrating on the figure of Shylock as a scapegoat for any religious doctrine that deviates from Shakespeare's own brand of Christian orthodoxy.
Maccoby, Hyam. "Shakespeare and Shylock." Antisemitism and Modernity: Innovation and Continuity. London: Routledge, 2006. 97-107. Rpt. in Shakespearean Criticism. Ed. Michelle Lee. Vol. 123. Detroit: Gale, 2009.
Kottman contends that Shakespeare posed a central ethical dilemma for audiences of The Merchant of Venice.
Kottman, Paul A. "Avoiding Tragedy in The Merchant of Venice." Journal of Cultural and Religious Theory 8.3 (Fall 2007): 53-65. Rpt. in Shakespearean Criticism. Ed. Michelle Lee. Vol. 123. Detroit: Gale, 2009. Literature Resource Center. Web. 28 June 2011.
"While the distinction of the Law and Christian mercy is made emphatically by the play, the distinction between Jew and Christian is blurred by the behavior of the actual Christians."
Cooper, John R. "Shylock's Humanity." Shakespeare Quarterly 21.2 (1970): 117-24. JSTOR. Web. 28 June 2011.
Young minimizes the racial aspect of the Christians' treatment of Shylock in The Merchant of Venice, instead focusing on Shakespeare's ironic commentary of human beings--Christian and Jew alike--who lack the capacity to extend mercy to one another. Young, R. V. "The Bard, the Black, the Jew." First Things 141 (Mar. 2004): 22-28. Rpt. in Shakespearean Criticism. Ed. Michelle Lee. Vol. 97. Detroit: Gale, 2006. Literature Resource Center. Web. 28 June 2011.